A brief introduction to getting started with bitcoin on a linux distribution
For the impatient: Skip to step 1
Bitcoin is one of the most interesting technologies we have seen emerge in the past ten years. And it confuses everyone who sets out to use it. This post is my definitive guide to beginning your journey with bitcoin the right way.
To me, the right way includes, but is not limited to:
- Running bitcoin on a linux machine. My reasons for this are too many to really list here, but suffice it to say that since linux is widely regarded as the most secure operating system available, and the usage of bitcoin involves being your own bank, using bitcoin on linux is the best way to ensure your coins stay safe.
- Using the bitcoin-core wallet software. There are other wallets available. You actually don’t even need a wallet software to own bitcoins or even spend bitcoins. However, if you want to understand how bitcoin works under the hood – which you should, because you are going to be your own bank, you should use this software.
- Using the command line to do bitcoin things. Actually, using both the GUI and the command line is the way to go. This tutorial (this is part 1 of 2) will be a command-line-centric description because afterall, I’m trying to show you the right way to do things.
But that’s just, like, your opinion man.
It is. This is my blog.
You shouldn’t necessarily trust me or anyone – bitcoin isn’t about trust. But if you google “altoidnerd”, you’ll find that I have been around the bitcoin eco-system for quite some time. That’s all I can tell you.
There are just so many wallets available – why bitcoin-core? Because I have been using it for years, I have a very good method of keeping my coins safe, and that is what I am sharing with you today. Use it- it is THE wallet.
But altoidnerd, I don’t want to run linux. I like windows / OSX
I am a linux and an OSX user. So please understand the scope of my knowledge includes these operating systems. If you want to use OSX, most of this tutorial will make sense with minor changes perhaps.
If you want to use windows, that’s ok, I’m not going to judge you. Bitcoin-core is available for windows as well. Please understand however, I am not a windows user, so I will not be able to give you “the definitive bitcoin windows guide”. You can still read on, however, since you can apply much of this tutorial to usage of bitcoin-qt’s debug window instead of the command line.
Step 1: Download and install bitcoin-core
Navigate to bitcoin.org’s official download page and select the bitcoin-core distribution for your operating system. And do choose linux (tgz). Do that because you should be running linux. But if you aren’t, even though you should be, choose the distribution for your operating system. Extract and install the client.
The “right way”
To really take control of things, and understand what is happening, you’re going to want to run bitcoin software from the command line. Though it isn’t really necessary to download the thing from the command line, I’m going to describe that here because this tutorial is the first installment of a start to finish command line approach. For a sneak peak of what I mean, see an earlier post where I described how to use bitcoin-core to generate QR codes without having to trust shady ass websites.
Go to your home directory and create a new directory just for bitcoin. This is not a necessary step, but once again, this is my “right way” tutorial and I will explain reasons for this later on. Enter the directory, and download the tarball with the “wget” command. The extract the tarball like so:
tar -xzvf bitcoin-0.11.0-linux64.tar.gz
Sweet. Now change directory to where the binaries are,
and launch “bitcoin-qt” (qt means its the GUI version).
It’s going to show you the dialogue box below and ask you if you’d like to use the default directory. Do it. Click “OK”.
You’ll see a friendly startup screen if you’ve done things right!
Step 2: Encrypt your wallet, and wait a few days
Bitcoin-core is called a “full-node” implementation, which means the first time you start it on your machine, it’s going to download every single bitcoin transaction that has ever taken place. Wait until the blockchain is synced to start making transactions.
In the mean time, you need to set a passphrase for your wallet. This is super important. In the upper left corner of bitcoin-qt, go to settings -> Encrypt Wallet, and set a very strong passphrase.
This will make it impossible for anyone to send bitcoins from your wallet without entering your password:
Just make sure you:
- Make your password extremely long. I don’t know if there is a length limit in the bitcoin-core code or not. Regardless, seriously push your personal boundaries on what you think a safe password is. Make it super duper long, and impossible to guess. Wise men have discussed password strength to a great extent. Pick a strong password. 20+ characters. Go for 30. No 40. Just make it long, and keep it an absolute secret.
- Never, ever lose or forget this password. If you lose or forgot your password, your coins will be unspendable forever. Neither you, nor anybody on earth, nor God himself will be able to spend your coins. Your coins will be effectively lost.
Picking a strong passphrase makes security so, so easy
Once you encrypt your wallet, you can copy and store
wallet.dat everywhere (I explain
wallet.dat in great detail in “Step 3”). I literally have copies of my main
wallet.dat on 6 or 7 computers, because come hell or highwater, I will always be able to find a copy of my
wallet.dat file. I suggest you do the same. Here is why strong encryption and insane redundancy works:
- If your password is ridiculously long, you can be very lazy and downright cavelier about where you keep your
wallet.dat, because even if someone finds the wallet file, they wont be able to do a damn thing with it. They won’t be able to spend your coins without your passphrase.
- This means that you can make copies of
wallet.datand store them like literally everywhere, on all your machines, three times over. In the cloud. On your mom’s computer. Hell, theoretically speaking, you can post your encrypted
wallet.daton the internet and just about everyone will have a copy, and be unable to spend your coins, because they don’t know your password. Someone remind me to put some coins into an address, and post the encrypted wallet online to prove my point.
If you encrypt your wallet like a boss, you never forget your password, you never tell anyone your password, and you copy the file to everywhere you possibly can imagine, you will never lose your coins. And nobody will be able to steal them from you. Seriously, nobody. It is computationally impossible.
Step 3: Understand what you just did on your computer
Let’s break it down this way. Here are some things that just happened when you launched bitcoin-qt for the first time:
- A hidden directory
~/.bitcoinwas created. It contains among other things the single most important thing ever: a file called
wallet.dat. This file is critical.
~/.bitcoin/wallet.datcontains all of your private keys.
wallet.datis life. When you see in headlines in the news like “Frustrated gentleman quite upset having lost a usb jump drive containing 100,000 BTC“, it means he doesn’t have a copy of
wallet.dat, so neither he, nor anyone on earth, nor God himself can spend his coins anymore.
- Your computer started downloading the blockchain. The blockchain is a record of every bitcoin transaction ever to have taken place. This will take a few days. As of today, the blockchain is about 42 gigabytes. Make sure you have space for it.
Do not delete your
wallet.datfile. Just don’t. If you want to start a new wallet, instead of deleting
wallet.dat, just rename it to something else, like
wallet.dat.old, restart bitcoin-qt, and it will create a new wallet for you. Keep your wallets people. Keep them good.
Notice how I have a file called
wallet.dat.default? That’s because I never delete a wallet. When I installed bitcoin on this computer, I moved the
wallet.datthat stores my coins into
~/.bitcoin/, but first I renamed the existing file so I can keep it. Because, why not? I’m telling you – don’t delete a file called
wallet.dat, because mistakes happen, and its better to have hundreds of files named
wallet.dat.*than it is to lose your coins.
- A hidden directory
In my next post, I will describe some of the features of the bitcoin-qt debug window,
bitcoind and its helper
bitcoin-cli. You can do interesting things, like import new keys, or convert keys to qr-codes.
If you have ay questions, please feel free to comment or contact me.
If you liked this post, you can donate bitcoins to me here: 12gKRdrz7yy7erg5apUvSRGemypTUvBRuJ
Learn about the author here: